Subjunctive Mood

                Subjunctive Mood

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In Latin the subjunctive can express the ideas of:
wish, command, purpose, result, characteristic, circumstances
indirect question, indirect discourse and so on.

The active voice, subjective mood has only 4 tenses.
1. Subjunctive present: -em, -am
2. Subjunctive imperfect: -arem, -erem, -erem, -irem
3. Subjunctive perfect: -erim
4. Subjunctive pluperfect: -issem

1. Subjunctive Present
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- Jussive: a command or prohibition (ne +) in the First and Third person
Veniamus.
Let us come.
Servus id faciat.
Let the slave do it.
Ne redeant.
Let them not return.
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- A wish for the future (utinam +)
Utinam falsus vates sim.
O that I may be a false prophet.
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- Condition 'should''would' (future less vivid)
Si id faciat, prudens sit.
If he should do it, he would be wise.
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- Dubitative
Quis me reprehendat?
Who is to blame me (I wonder)?
Quid faciat?
What is he to do (I wonder)?
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- Sequence of tenses
[main verb in present or future, action contemporaneous or subsequent]
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* Indirect question
Rogant (rogabunt) quid faciat.
They ask (will ask) what he is doing (will do).
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* Purpose
Id facit (faciet) ut me juvet.
He does (will do) it to help me.
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* Indirect discourse
Puto eos malos qui in urbe maneant infirmos futuros esse sine duce.
I think that those evil men who remain in the city will be weak without their leader.

2. Subjunctive Imperfect
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- A wish for the present (utinam +)
Utinam ne adesses.
Would that you were not here.
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- Condition contrary to fact present
Si id faceret, prudens esset.
If he were doing it, he would be wise.
Si hoc diceret, erraret.
If he were saying this, he would be wrong.
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- Sequence of tenses
[main verb in past tenses, action contemporaneous or subsequent]
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* Indirect question
Rogaverunt (rogabant) quid feceret.
They asked (kept asking) what he is doing (will do).
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* Circumstances
Cum hoc sciret, potuit eos juvare.
Since he know this, he was able to help them.
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* Result
Tanta fecit ut urbem servaret.
He did such great things that he saved the city.
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* Purpose
Haec fecit ut urbem servaret.
He did these things that he might saved the city.
Id fecit (faciebat) ut me juvaret.
He did (kept doing) it to help me.
Hoc fecit (faciebat) ne caperetur.
He did (kept doing) this that he might not be captured.

3. Subjunctive Perfect
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- Sequence of tenses
[main verb in present or future, action prior]
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* Indirect question
Rogant (rogabunt) quid fecerit.
They ask (will ask) what he did.
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* Indirect discourse
Nescio quando redieris.
I do not know when you returned.
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* Verb of doubting
Non dubitamus quin novae copiae pervenerint.
We do not doubt that reinforcements have arrived.

4. Subjunctive Pluperfect
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- A wish for the past (utinam +)
Utinam Romae mansisses.
If only you had stayed in Rome.
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- Condition contrary to fact past
Si id fecisset, prudens fuisset.
If he had done it, he would have been wise.
Si hoc dixisset, erravisset.
If he had said this, he would have been wrong.
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- Sequence of tenses
[main verb in past tenses, action prior]
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* Indirect question
Rogaverunt (rogabant) quid fecisset.
They asked (kept asking) what he had done.
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* Circumstances
Cum hoc fecisset, ad te fugit.
When he had done this, he fled to you.
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* Indirect discourse
Dixit se legisse libros quos misisses.
He said that he had read the books which you had sent.

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