The Eight Parts of Speech

  1. Interjection or Exclamation - a cry or expression of emotion, such as Ecce, Eheu, Hercle, Heu, Io, Pol, Vae.

  2. Conjunction - a word that joins two words or groups of words including three types: coordinating, subordinating and correlative.

  3. Adverb - a word that modifies or describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs tell the manner (diligently), time (then), place (here), or degree (greatly) of an action.

  4. Preposition - a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in a sentence. Prepositions can indicate direction (I went into the town), position (she sits under a tree), accompaniment (let's go with a friend), or agency (the message was carried by the god Mercury).

  5. Noun - a name word that can be the name of a person (Caesar), a fictional figure (Zeus), an animal (Cerberus), a place (Roma), a thing (forum), an event (Saturnalia), or an idea (pax).

  6. Pronoun - a word that replaces one or more nouns. Like a noun, it may represent a person, place or thing.
    • Personal pronouns are: I, you, he, she, it, we, you (pl.), they, him, her, them.
    • Reflexive pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. They refer back to the subject of a sentence. e.g. Narcissus saw himself in the stream.
    • Interrogative pronouns ask questions: who? whom? what? which? of whom? to whom? e.g. To whom are you sending that letter?
    • Demonstrative pronouns point out persons or things: this, these, that, those.
    • Possessive pronouns show possession: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs. e.g. Whose toga are you wearing? It is yours.
    • Relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause and relate back to a word in the main clause. e.g. Cornelia's friend is Flavia, who lives in a nearby house.
    • Indefinite pronouns indicate certain people or things that are not evident at first glance. e.g. Someone will be able to help you.

  7. Adjective - a word that describes or modifies a noun or pronoun. There are descriptive adjectives such as large, bright, or green; possessive adjectives such as his, her, my, your, their; interrogative adjectives such as which book? what goddess?; demonstrative adjectives such as this book, that goddess; and indefinite adjectives such as some books, any goddess.

  8. Verb - a word that expresses an action, state, or condition. It can be a physical action such as 'run', 'jump', 'sit', 'sing', 'carry' or a mental action such as 'think', 'hope', 'believe'. It can be transitive, meaning it can have a direct object. It can be intransitive, meaning it cannot be followed by a direct object. One can usually pick out the verb in a Latin sentence by the ending.