Agreement of Adjectives

                Compound Sentences


1. Independent sentence

Paulus ridet, sed Iacobus flet.
(Paul laughs but James cries.)


2. Dependent sentence

Latro occidit viatorem, quia se defenderat.
(The robber killed the tourist because he defended himself.)


2.1 - Objective sentence

- Accusative with infinitive -- verbs of perception:

Audivi patrem meum aegrotare.
(I heard my father is sick.)

[accipere, ignorare, intellegere, judicare, cogitare, credere, discere, scire, sentire, sperare, videre]

-- Verbs of declaration:

Dixit se aegrotare.
(He said himself sick.)

[affirrmare, clamare, demonstrare, significare, dicere, docere, jurare, narrare, negare, nuntiare, ostendere, referre, scribere, tradere, memoria tenere]

-- Other verbs:

Veto te haec dicere.
(I prohibit you to say that.)

[jubere, vetare, prohibere, sinere, pati, velle, nolle, malle, cupere, gaudere, laetari, mirari, dolere, aegre ferre, graviter ferre, molest ferre]

- Indirect question:

Dic mihi, nun hoc sit verum.
(Tell me whether this is true.)

- Conjunctional:

Oro te, ut ignoscas mihi.
(I beg you to ignore me.)


2.2 Subjective sentence

- Accusative with infinitive verb to be:

-- Justum est, domum regis esse optimam.
(It is fair that the king's house should be the best.)

[aequum, apertum, credibile, dignum, facile, honestum, justum, mirum, necesse.... est]

-- Opus est domum regis esse optimam.
(It is necessary that the king's house should be the best.)

[opinio, opus, spes, fama, fas, nefas, tempus.....est]

-- Oportet domum regis esse optimam.
(The king's house should be the best.)

[apparet, elucet, pate, conducit, expedit, prodest, constat, convenit, fallit, fugit, latet, praeterit me, interest, refert, oportet, licet, praestat, decet, dedecet, juvat, placet, displicet, sufficit]

- Indirect question:

Incertum est, num hoc sit verum.
(It is not certain whether this should be true.)

- Conjunctional:

Mos puerorum est, ut parva causa lacriment.
(It is children's behaviour to cry for small matters.)


2.3 - Attributive sentence

- Relative:

Beatus est homo, qui amat Deum.
(The man is blessed who loves God.)

- Independent:

Pluit et jam nox est. Qua de causa domi maneo.
(It rains and is already night. Because of that I stay at home.)


2.4 - Adverbial sentence

- Temporal:

Dum spiro, spero.
(I hope while I breathe.)

Postquam cenavimus, oramus.
(After we dined, we pray.)

Cum sol oritur, surgimus.
(When the sun rised, we wake up.)

- Causal:

Hoc malum non facies, quia bonus es.
(You will not do this bad thing, because you are good.)

Quoniam alii tacent, ego loqui debeo.
(Because all keep silent, I need to speak.)

Laudo te, quod hoc fecisti.
(I praise you that you did this.)

- Finality:

Cor habemus, ut amemus.
(We have hearts so that we could love.)

Ideo tacui, ut alii loquerentur.
(Therefore I kept silent so that others may speak.)

- Comparative:

Majus donum misi quam accepi.
(To send a gift is bigger than to accept one.)

Quo plus te doceo, eo stultior fis.
(The more I teach you, the more stupid you become.)

Haec omnia dixisti, quasi ipse vidisses.
(You said all these as if you have seen them yourself.)

- Consecutive:

Tam superbus est, ut me numquam salutaret.
(He is so proud that he never greeted me.)

Tam bene fecisti omnia, ut nemo te non laudet.
(You have done so well that nobody not praise you.)

- Conditional:

Si hoc dicis, erras.
(If you say this, you are wrong.)

Si hoc dicas, erres.
(If you were to say this, you would be making a mistake.)

Si hoc diceres, errares.
(If you said this, you would be making a mistake.)

Si hoc dixisses, erravisses.
(If you had said this, you would have made a mistake.)

- Concessive:

Quamquam multa scis, adhuc plura ignoras.
(Although you know much, you are still ignorant.)

Quamvis multa scias, adhuc plura ignoras.
(Even if you know much, you are still ignorant.)