Pope Alexander VI (1431 – 1503)
"Alexander VI was the only Pope who had never found an apologist...
... That he obtained the papacy through simony was the general belief and is not improbable,
though it would be difficult to prove it juridically,
as the law then stood the election was valid. (Catholic Encyclopedia)
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Pope Alexander VI decreed that all lands discovered west
of a meridian 100 leagues (one league is 3 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands
should belong to Spain while new lands discovered east of that line would belong to Portugal.
In 1494 Spain and Portugal signed a treaty at Tordesillas and moved the line 270 leagues west,
to 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. This new line (located at approximately 46° 37')
gave Portugal more claim to South America.
Portuguese route to the East
The Portuguese authority to spread Christianity in the East was derived from the Papal Bulls issued
by Popes Calixtus III (1455-58), Nicholas V (1447-55), Alexander V1 (1492-1503) and the Treaty of Tordesillas (in 1492),
which divided the newly ' discovered' lands between Spain and Portugal,
and imposed on the rulers of these countries the duty of propagating the Christian faith.
To the Portuguese the Christianisation of newly 'discovered' lands was a State objective.
The Portuguese Crown maintained the entire ecclesiastical establishment in the East.
The Doctrine of Padroado (jus patrionatus established by the Papal Bulls of 1514)
provided the authority for missionary work to be in the hands of the Portuguese Crown
in areas where Portugal claimed political rights.Senaka Weeraratna
The Jesuits claim Chinese terms could be used to designate the Christian God
and that the Confucian ceremonies were merely civil rites that Christians could attend
and that Chinese ancestor worship was compatible with Christianity.
But Pope Clement XI decreed in 1715 that "Deus" should be addressed as the Lord of Heaven, Earth,
and everything in the universe, that the spring and autumn worship of Confucius,
together with the worship of ancestors, is not allowed among Catholic converts. Modern History Sourcebook
In 1939 Pope Pius XII decreed that Catholics are permitted to be present at ceremonies in honor of Confucius,
and to bow head and other manifestations of civil observance before the deceased or their images.New World Encyclopedia
宗 座 監 牧 prefect apostolic
宗 座 代 牧 vicar apostolic
1705 Guangzhou - Charles-Thomas Maillard De Tournon (1668-1710),
Papal legate to China
1841 Hong Kong - Theodore Joset(1804-1842), procuratorHKCDA
1922 Beijing - Celso Constantini (1876-1958), the first Apostolic Delegate to China. (Agenzia Fides)
南京條約 (1842) 與教案
Vincent Lebbe, Belgium-born, adopted the culture and sentiments of the Chinese people in his China mission that began in 1901.
He subsequently becoming a Chinese citizen. He founded the Little Brothers of St. John the Baptist congregation,
before organizing rescue efforts in Japan's invasion of China.
He was detained briefly by Communists before passing away in 1940. (Jean P. Wiest)
1926 - six Chinese titular bishops were consecrated in Rome by Pope Pio XI.
1946 - Pope Pius XII established the episcopal hierarchy in China. (HKCDA)
徐誠斌主教 (1969-1973 主教)